7 Things To Keep In Mind When Hiring Local SEO Companies in AZ

7 Things To Keep In Mind When Hiring Local SEO Companies in AZ

Today,the world is truly mobile. People using their smartphones to find healthcare facilities,hair salons,gyms,restaurants,and other businesses in their locality is now the norm rather than the exception. Search engines now use the search engine results to help shoppers find local businesses offering what they are looking for.

Local SEO has in recent years emerged as a niche that differs from traditional SEO in a variety of ways catering to the rise in local searches. A competitive local SEO strategy demands knowledge of local approaches to targeting,which is usually beyond the grasp of most small business owners. That’s why it is advisable to hire an experienced Local AZ SEO agency.

To learn more,seo by Salterra.

7 Things to Keep in Mind When Hiring Local SEO Companiesin AZ

The increased need for local optimization services has led to the increase in the number of local SEO companies. Here are 7 things you should keep in mind when you hire a local SEO agency:

1. Company Background

Today,there are many different providers of local SEO services,but not all them are good enough,which means that you need to do proper due diligence to find the right one. The Internet is your friend when it comes to research.

Find a few viable candidates and read reviews on them. It is preferable to hire a local SEO expert that has been in business for a long time. You will obviously be targeting the local market and the company should know of the best approaches to connect with the local audience.

2. Set Measurable Goals

Having vague requirements is the quickest path to misunderstandings between local SEO experts and their clients. If you want the local SEO company to meet your needs and expectations,you have to clearly outline your goals.

Explain to the SEO agency what audience you wish to target,the amount of traffic you would like to get,and the competitors you wish to outperform. Having specific,measurable goals makes it easier to select an SEO agency with the right background and knowledge.

3. Budget

You should consider having a budget,but it shouldn’t be too tight. Ideally,the budget you set should have enough wiggle room in case you come across a local SEO agency that charges a bit extra than what was originally anticipated,but delivers great results. Setting the budget will also help you narrow down your options when it comes to SEO agency selection.

4. SEO Tools and Techniques Used

Today,there are countless SEO tools and techniques aimed at making the local optimization easier. A reputable local SEO company in Arizona should be willing to reveal the SEO techniques they use as well as their reasons for using those tools and techniques.

Ideally,the company should be using ethical (white hat) methods to promote websites such as backlinking. If you find an SEO agency promising to deliver exceptional results within a short time,stay away from them since they are probably using unethical (black hat) methods to promote websites.

5. Test the SEO Agency’s SEO Knowledge

If you are looking for a simple way to identify which local SEO agency will be right for your needs,consider testing their knowledge of SEO. Give the SEO agency a chance to impress with their knowledge and expertise by asking about the most current changes to local SEO. The agency should have no problems answering all your questions since they are local SEO experts.

6. Portfolio

Any reputable local SEO agency should have a portfolio to prove the value of services they offer. The agency should be willing to tell you exactly how they have helped other businesses find success with their local SEO efforts.

SEO companies usually have case studies on their website. Read through each one of them to get an idea of the company’s track record. It can also be a good idea to contact some of the SEO agency’s previous clients to learn more about their experiences working with the agency.

7. Nature of Communications and Customer Service

Ideally,you should hire a local SEO company that maintains steady and polite communication with clients. The Arizona SEO agency should offer regular updates on your website and be receptive to your ideas. The agency should also be ready and available to offer assistance should you ever face issues with your website.

Final Thoughts

Hiring the right SEO company is not the easiest thing since there are so many agencies offering very similar services. If you follow the tips provided here,however,you will be closer to finding the right local SEO agency to partner with and ensure the success of your business online.

How To Find Office Space For Lease

time that you can send recommendations to the landlord agents. Don’t put all your eggs in one basket,particularly in a hot marketplace. Preferably you would like to send a minimum of 2-3 recommendations. This allows you to make the property owners contend for your tenancy,but also gives you back ups in the event one area gets rented to another tenant. If you’re leasing commercial area all on your own then you’ll need to write the recommendations. Otherwise if working together with a tenant advisor then they’re going to write them for you.

Singapore PR Agency

Businesses,particularly new startups,or established businesses that are launching a new line of a product often struggle with brand awareness. And so they tend to concentrate on two areas of publicity which are quite easy to track: either going directly to the consumer with social media campaigns or they or they cough up the dough for a good advertising campaign and think they have taken care of the situation.

However,both have their limitations,and may not really do the job. People are very leery of advertising,and even publicity releases through social media tend to be limited in their effectiveness.

There is a second approach,which tends to far more effective in Asia,and that’s to find angles for newspapers,magazines,and online blogs to do the promoting for you.

That’s the advice of Grow Public Relations,a boutique pr agency Singapore.

As a PR agency,grow recognizes several facts and realities about consumer orientated content.

The first is that newspapers and magazines can be selective in which stories they can feature. However,alternatively,newspapers,magazines,and television and radio shows are in a constant battle to come up with dramatic new content that will attract their viewers.

This puts a good PR Agency Singapore in a great position to propose just the right stores to attract producers,editors,and journalists to the stories that they spin around a companies brand awareness.

For example,if a company announces the construction of a new building or a new way of
doing business,that’s newsworthy,particularly in the age of the COVID-19 pandemic when so many stories about businesses that are struggling are in the news.

According to the staff at Grow PR agency,one of the advantages of being a small PR firm is that they can be much more flexible than a large PR firm with many clients.

Whereas a routine PR firm may take a week to get the job done,Grow can often do the same job in 1 or 2 days.

In addition,since Grow does the initial legwork in stories,then sits back and lets the journalists take over and do the rest,a certain amount of trust develops with them as they never try to push stories that are not potentially valuable to the consumer.

Knowing when to strike and when to hold back is a key part of being a quality pr firm.

Get assistance leasing industrial area

When leasing commercial space tenants have the alternative of finding space on their own or requiring the assistance of a tenant rep to help with the search. Looking for commercial space is a really time consuming procedure. If you are not acquainted with the marketplace or do not have much deal experience you might end up squandering a ton of time or potentially make contractual errors that cost you a great deal of cash later on.

Fallacies About Not Using An Representative

Many tenants believe that by representing themselves in the search and settlement procedure the landlord will provide a discount rate on the rental rate,however that is not the case. In fact,the landlord might increase the rate and offer fewer concessions understanding that the tenant is not knowledgeable about present market conditions or the leasing procedure. Using a tenant rep does not have a unfavorable effect on the deal.

Likewise,many tenants do not recognize that having a tenant rep does not cost them anything. When landlord’s buy structures they build leasing commissions into the proforma. If the tenant does not have representation then the proprietors pay their listing representative 100% of the lease commissions. If the tenant has representation then the landlord representative and tenant rep divided the commission. Tenants do not need to pay tenant reps,however they get all the advantages of having one.

Benefits to Having a Tenant Representative – You Will Comprehend Your Needs Much Better

Skilled tenant representatives

The Best Way To Lease Commercial Real Estate In Your Local Area

Many companies will need to try to look for commercial space for rent,whether that could turn out to be officeoffice space for lease or even warehouse space for rent,sooner or later. We have an alternative approach to looking through never-ending advertisements to locate commercial real estate for lease or maybe commercial office space for lease in the area.

Every single business requires premises to trade from so renting a commercial Building is one thing that you’ll be more likely to need to do in the event you run your personal company or control one for another person.

#1 Consider Obtaining The Aid Of A tenant rep

You will find and negotiate industrial area on your very own even so if you don’t recognize the local sector and have not discussed many commercial leases you will be in a disadvantageous position. Landlords hire skilled real estate agents to work out on their behalf to make certain they obtain the maximum lease prices and best rent conditions feasible. They are professional even so they are looking out for the property owner’s interest,not yours. Also,they simply show you spaces inside their portfolio.

Renter reps only represent renters,never landlords. This permits them to prevent conflicting situations,show you every industrial space which will suit your needs,and offer impartial feedback for you. Having a tenant agent in your corner will give you access to the same market expertise,resources,and experience. From site choice,to negotiation,to occupancy they’re with you every step of the way. Their service is free to you because landlords pay out their fee.

#2 Figure out Your Needs

It’s crucial that you spend some time to understand your business’ tradition and current and future requirements. In this assessment figure out the ideal location,size,budget,growth needs,and timeline. Keep in mind most rents are 3-5 years long so it is crucial that you do your best to organize and budget accordingly.

#3 Look for Space

If you are searching for industrial space all on your very own then begin searching online for industrial areas for lease. Loopnet and 42floors are an excellent spot to begin. It would also be a great idea for you to drive around the town and call for lease signs and speak to all of the landlord real-estate agents if they return your phone calls.

In case you are working with A commercial agent that represents tenants then they will do all of the time-consuming work on your behalf of trying to find and determining the top spaces that fulfill your requirements. They will call all the listing agents,accumulate layouts,pictures,etc. and present you the top options.

Next they are going to schedule tours of every one of the properties that made the list and tour with you giving you unbiased feedback and inside information about each property.

#4 Send Out Proposals To Property Owners

Now it’s time for you to send out proposals to the property manager agents. By now you’ve narrowed it down to the areas that satisfy your most suited dimensions,place,and spending budget.

Do not be tempted to place all your eggs in one basket,specifically in a hot market. Preferably you would like to send out multiple proposals in order to allow the landlords to contend for your tenancy. It would likewise give you backups in case one area gets rented to a new tenant.

If you’re dealing with a commercial tenant rep then they’re going to set up proposals in your stead,or else in case you are doing everything on your own then you’ll need to set up the proposals yourself.

#5 Examine the Proposals

If you take on a tenant advisor they will help put together an analysis of the property manager proposals that you receive back. The objective is to complete a comparison of the different lease terms and you would have to layout this analysis in a manner which makes them simple to evaluate.

Property owners would prepare lease proposals for prospective tenants and work out bargain conditions with renters or their brokers. The best real estate recommendations have one common trait – they are seriously personalized to match you,the customer whose business they would like to win.

You would need to work together with your tenant rep in case you hired one,and your lawful counsel to barter and enhance company and lawful conditions and prepare recommendations and counter-proposals. Be ready for some effort at this stage as the rent will likely be a lengthy one and not very easily changed once initially decided.

#6 Discuss The Bargain

Potential renters usually miscalculate the amount of time it will take to find a proper location and work out a lease.

The more ideal tenant you are,the simpler it would be to barter rent and other main reasons of the rent.

Though brokers or tenant’s reps are helpful,a wise tenant will engage an attorney to analyze the rent thoroughly and work out to enhance the rent for the tenant’s benefit.

#7 Build Out And Move In

Once the rent is signed now you could begin the procedure for building out the area as needed. If you have a commercial agent that represents tenants they’ll be able to advise vendors

The Top 5 Dash Cams and How They Can Protect You


Untraced hit and run accidents may see a dramatic reduction in the future as more and more drivers install dash cams in their cars.

Take a look at this recent footage taken from the rear dash cam of a Dallas driver:

Dash cams vary in size and style, but they are basically a camera designed to connect to your car’s dashboard and record events while driving. Some cameras are voice activated while others are operated by pushing one simple button. These cameras offer convenience and peace of mind to vehicle operators when they are driving because they remain ready to capture the unexpected, such as accidents. The use of dash cams can provide protection to drivers by recording details of what occurred at any given time.

The Use of Dash Cams Has Hugely Increased In Recent Years

These cameras have grown in popularity and are used by civilian drivers, bus drivers, driving instructors and police officers because they become a witness to the traffic surrounding the vehicle that you are operating. How popular have they become? The market for these cameras was valued at over USD 1910 million in 2019 and is projected to reach USD5117 million by 2025.

Dashboard cameras have come a long way since they were initially installed on police vehicles in the latter part of the 80s. Back then, these cameras were analog cameras without memory cards, recorded on VHS tapes. These devices transformed substantially during the 1990s when everyday people started to install them to record whatever occurred while they were driving. Many advances in technology have meant major improvements to these devices including a lower price point for a higher quality of technology.

People are choosing to install these devices on their vehicles because they provide comfort that they will be protected against many events. Some of these cameras provide early warnings for imminent dangers on the road. According toWard Maedgen Accident Attorneys,the use of these cameras can provide valuable footage to insurance companies,especially after an not-at-fault accident. Some other known benefits of a dash cam installation include:


– Anti theft – a would be car thief sees a dash camera and decides not to steal a car because they would be recorded and possibly identified;

– In the event of an accident, the camera would record the footage and prove which driver caused the incident.

– A dual camera, or one that records both the driver and the road ahead, can provide that the driver is not using their cell phone if they are pulled over for such an offense.

– In the case of improper police behavior, a driver can prove that they were not speeding or doing anything else illegal if they are improperly pulled over.

– The footage can provide valuable evidence of a hit and run to help track down the vehicle that caused the damage and left the scene.

– Companies use these cameras to provide valuable information as to the behavior of their drivers including proving their location at a certain time.

– Some cameras offer information such as the location of speed and red light cameras which can alert a driver to slow down.


1. Garmin Dash Cam 66W

We tried this one personally atTX

This compact camera has been improved with a winder view angle. The video quality is 1440p with HDR (high dynamic range) of 60 FPS (frames per second). The viewing angle is 180 degrees and the unit can be integrated with GPS. The screen is LCD,320 x 240 and 2 inches.

PROS: This unit is easy to use

CONS: Battery life of 30 minutes, more expensive than other units of comparable quality.

Top Review Found:

A reviewer on Bestbuy.com had the following to say:

I was very impressed with the ease of installation for the Garmin 66W Dashcam. The picture quality is excellent and the user interfaces, both on the Dashcam and the app, are very intuitive. The video is true 180-degree left to right and vertical video is sufficient to catch traffic lights, etc until almost under the light. Note that a memory card does NOT come with the Dashcam and must be purchased separately for the Dashcam to work. I got the largest that would fit,512GB. I am happy with the ease of viewing videos via the Dashcam or the app. File transfer via the app to my iPhone was very lengthy. I won’t say it was slow due to file size; it just took a long time. I have not removed the memory card for file transfer on my desktop but would be a computer limitation anyway â not related to the Dashcam. My installation is very clean in my 2016 F-150. An adapter cable for the rear view mirror added a USB connection usable for the Dashcam. Works great, automatic power-on with ignition,and no wires in the way or routed to power outlet. Overall,I am very happy with the Garmin 66W Dashcam and would recommend it to anybody.”Found at:https://www.bestbuy.com/site/reviews/garmin-dash-cam-66w/6351245 

2. Garmin Dash Cam Mini

This mini dash cam comes at a good price with a video quality of 1080p at 30fps. There is a viewing angle of 140 degrees but no integrated GPS and no screen. The unit measures 3.1 x 5.3 x 2.9 cm or the size of a small car key. It fits in behind the mirror on your windshield and is plugged into your lighter socket or can be hardwired to the fuse box in your car and boots up on ignition or if a collision is detected.

Pros: small size, great price

Cons: no display screen and no battery; need a phone app to download footage from the camera when it is needed.

A reviewer on the gadgeteer said he liked that the camera was small, easy to install and didn’t provide distractions with the constant display. He said he would change it with a small micro SD card, fix the video splice glitch issue and improve the WiFi export speed for files. Found here:



3. The Thinkware U1000

This 4K dash cam “does it all”. It has 4K Ultra HD video quality, a viewing angle of 150 degrees and an integrated GPS. There is no screen.

Pros: the 4K video is very clear and the camera has many features. There is a front and rear camera option.

Cons: the camera needs to be hardwired, there is no built-in screen and it must be hardwired. The 4K video files can be really large.

One reviewer liked the fact that it was a good quality camera with an included rear camera. He liked the option that it could be run from the cigarette plug or be hardwired in. He stated that the product was easy to install and use. He didn’t like that the product was expensive and only had a micro SD.

Found here:https://the-gadgeteer.com/2019/11/12/thinkware-u1000-4k-dash-cam-bundle-review


4. Nextbase 522GW

A small camera with plenty of features including emergency SOS calling, Alexa,GPS and WiFi. The Video quality is 1440 p at 30 fps. The viewing angle is 140 degrees and there is an integrated GPS with a 3 inch HD touchscreen.

Pros: a good dash cam with plenty of features if you are looking for extra features, shoots with 2K resolution at 30 frames per second or at regular resolution 1080 full HD at 60 fps. This is a good camera for location, direction and speed. The emergency SOS feature could save lives.

Cons: the design is unattractive and too clunky. There may be too many features for some users.


A top reviewer on Best Buy wrote:

I have had this camera for about a year now. At first i was overwhelmed with the setup part. You have to download the app and link it to your phone. This enhanced the features. It has emergency icons on it. If an accident occurs it can send the videos to local authority lawyers emergency contacts whoever you choose. This particular model also connects to rear view cameras. I unfortunately don’t have rear view cameras but i wish i did. Deleting the videos to save space can be tedious sometimes… But its a small price to pay to have a piece of mind. I have it right behind my rear view mirror mounted on the windshield. I keep it connected to stay charged all the time. It can easily be removed from the mount for reviewing videos. It records sound and image… Very clear image. Impressive quality for how small it is. I keep the lens clean and the windshield clean for best results. I have caught people running red lights swerving in the road and we have even played it back to settle arguments. Lol. Its definitely the best witness you will have. Its peripheral vision is really good. It says under the product details the distance in peripheral vision i cant remember exactly but it captures more than enough while driving. It also has a setting where you can record after you set your car in park as well. Just keep in mind it will fill the card up faster. All in all i love it. I would buy another. I’m thinking about getting my dad 1 as well. Only thing i recommend is buying the highest gb sd card you can find. It is alexa capable and you can take it with you in any vehicle as long as you have a mount that’s easy to move from car to car.”

Found at: https://www.bestbuy.com/site/nextbase-522gw-dash-cam-black/6346998.p?skuId=6346998


5. Nextbase 622GW

A plug and play 4K dash cam that works well for most users. This camera has a 4K video quality at 30 fps and 1080 at 120 fps. The viewing angle is 140 degrees and there is integrated GPS with a 3 inch touchscreen.

Pros: The Alexa voice assistant is built into this unit. It has integrated GPS for data on location and speed. There is emergency SOS and location support.

Cons: The unit is much larger than other GPS units.

This is the unit up from the Nextbase 522GW and is a great choice if you need 4K for your dashcam without needing it to be hardwired to your car. The better video quality is immediately noticeable if you compare this unit to the 522GW and has the support feature What3Words which has been proven to save lives. The app is easily connected to a smartphone over WiFi so you can watch your clips easily and download any you want to save.


A top review on Best Buy read:

“Really wanted a 4k dash cam so that I could zoom in on recordings, in case I needed a license plate detail or road-sign etc. Being able to review videos on your phone is a huge plus. Also,Alexa is pretty sweet – I use it (her?) to listen to music/get the weather and other basic functions. I’m sure I could open garage doors/etc as well. Parking Mode works as advertised. I’m using the Cabin View rear cam which I really like! Great in-car view to save funny family moments. Very happy and really nothing to complain about except it’s expensive!”

 Found here:https://www.bestbuy.com/site/reviews/nextbase-622gw-4k-dash-cam-silver/6412920?variant=A 

This roundup was provided by staff at:TX

What is a Transplant?

What is a (kidney) transplant?
A transplant is generally understood to be the transfer of living cells, tissue or organs to another location within the same organism (so-called autologous transplantation) or to another (so-called allogeneic transplantation). When transmitting between alien organisms, e.g. Humans and animals, one speaks of xenogenic transplantation.

Depending on the type of organ or tissue transferred, one speaks of heart, bone, kidney transplant, etc.

While autologous transplants (e.g. grafting of skin tissue from one part of the body to another) usually run without complications, allogeneic transplants lead to so-called rejection reactions of the immune system, which have to be controlled.

A kidney transplant is the transplantation of functioning kidneys from a deceased person (or under certain circumstances from a living person (see living donation) to a patient with severely impaired or without kidney function through an operation with the aim of replacing the poor or missing kidney function.
In addition to hemodialysis and peritonial dialysis, a kidney transplant is the third option of kidney replacement therapy.

How does an organ donation / transplant work?
There are two types of organ donation. The donation of corpses, in which organs or tissues of deceased persons who have expressed their consent in a corresponding manner during their lifetime are transferred to a patient; this is the most common in terms of numbers in Germany.
Living donation is the transfer of organs or tissue from living people to the patient. (Living donation).

Transplantation after a corpse donation
The following requirements apply to a possible organ donor:

The irreversible brain death must have been determined by two doctors (neurologist and anesthetist) who were not involved in the transplantation and recorded in writing.

The organ donor must have documented his willingness to donate organs during his lifetime (e.g. organ donation card) or the relatives’ declaration of consent must be available. Since the Transplantation Act was passed on November 5, 1997, the so-called extended consent solution has applied in Germany.

The donor organ must still be functional.

Chronic or communicable diseases in the donor must be excluded.
If the brain death of a patient has been confirmed, the doctors notify the organizational center of the German Organ Transplantation Foundation (DSO) in the nearest transplant center. From here, the question of whether organs can be removed and the necessary medical tests are coordinated.
The DSO then informs the international agency Eurotransplant and organizes the organ removal.

Eurotransplant uses the data stored there to determine a suitable recipient based on medical criteria.

If such a recipient is found, the explanted organs are brought to the relevant transplant center and transplanted there.

The explanted kidneys can be refrigerated for up to 24 hours; they resume their function after they have been successfully transplanted into the recipient’s body. This gives enough time to take the graft to any location, find a suitable recipient and perform the necessary medical tests.

After completing these tests, e.g. If the tissue characteristics match and the negative cross match (see medical principles), the recipient is ordered to the transplant center, examined in detail, dialyzed and operated on if necessary.

Location d. Graft
The “new” kidney is placed in the right or left pelvis and the renal artery and vein are connected to the corresponding pelvic vessels; the ureter is connected to the urinary bladder (see fig.)
The kidney turns red as a sign of blood flow. Depending on the condition of the transplant, it starts working soon or only days after the procedure, which may have to be bridged by dialysis treatment.
Immunosuppressive treatment is started during the operation.

Transplantation after living donation
Living donation is the transplanting of non-regrowing, paired organs from the body of a living person.

The kidney is a paired organ and is therefore basically suitable for a living donation.

The Transplantation Act deliberately sets strict legal limits on the possibility of living donation, e.g. Organ trade or donations that are not made on a voluntary basis but due to e.g. Dependency relationships occur to prevent.
The only possible donors are: first- or second-degree relatives, spouses, fiancés or other persons who are obviously particularly close to the donor; Minors and over 70.

What is Dialysis?

Dialysis treatment tries, as the terms kidney replacement therapy or artificial kidney suggest, to replace the lost function of the body’s own kidneys as far as possible.

I.e. The substances that are excreted by the kidneys with the urine in a healthy person (metabolic products, drugs, components of food, etc.) are removed by artificial “filters” in patients with no or limited kidney function.
In addition, dehydration takes place during dialysis, as this usually also occurs. in kidney patients the natural way (urinating) is restricted or not done at all.

There are different types of dialysis.

The different types of dialysis
A basic distinction is made between two different types of dialysis treatment.

With hemodialysis, the patient’s blood is “cleaned” outside the body in the so-called dialyzer and excess water is withdrawn from him before it is returned to the bloodstream (for details, see the physico-chemical principles of hemodialysis).

Peritoneal or peritoneum dialysis has been an alternative to hemodialysis since 1976. One also speaks of CAPD (continious ambulatory peritoneal dialysis), which means something like: continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

The exchange processes for detoxification and dehydration take place on the peritoneum instead of outside the body.

One speaks of continuous because with this form of treatment a dialysate fluid is given into the abdominal cavity several times a day via a catheter, which remains there for several hours, i.e. dialysis takes place continuously.
This procedure is outpatient because, after a short learning phase, the patient carries out the treatment independently at home.

Vascular access (shunt / fistula)
Since the blood is “cleaned” outside the body during hemodialysis, it is necessary to provide access to the patient’s bloodstream.
During dialysis, 200-300 ml of blood per minute is withdrawn from the patient via this access, cleaned and then returned.

Such a vascular access is created by creating an operative connection from a forearm artery, which carries blood from the heart to the hand, to a forearm vein, which carries the blood back from the hand.
The resulting higher pressure in the vein widens it and can be punctured with a dialysis cannula.

This procedure was invented in 1966 by vascular surgeons Brescia and Cimino. This type of vascular access is called a Brescia-Cimino fistula or shunt, English for short circuit (between artery and vein).

Physico-chemical principles
During dialysis, the patient’s blood and the “cleaning fluid” (dialysate) flow past each other in the artificial kidney (dialyzer), separated by a semipermeable (semi-permeable) membrane.

Substances that are present in higher concentrations in the blood (metabolic products, drugs, etc.) pass into the dialysate and are transported away. This happens due to the physical phenomenon of diffusion:

If two liquids are separated by a semipermeable (semi-permeable) membrane, the particles dissolved in the liquids tend to move from the side of higher concentration to the side of lower concentration.
Diffusion scheme

Of course, only substances pass over whose molecular size is smaller than the pore size of the membrane.

In order to avoid that substances are withdrawn from the blood that should not be withdrawn from it (sodium, calcium, potassium, etc.), these substances are added to the dialysate in sufficient form.

If the dissolved particles are too large to diffuse through the membrane, the phenomenon of osmosis occurs:

The solvent (water) moves from the side of the lower particle concentration to the side of the higher particle concentration due to the osmotic force.
Osmosis scheme

A negative pressure on the side of the dialysate increases the transfer of water from the blood into the dialysate. Water can thus be specifically withdrawn from the blood by controlling the negative pressure. One then speaks of ultrafiltration.

Through the process of ultrafiltration (see above), dissolved particles are carried away by the overflowing water (convection), which intensifies the cleaning process of the blood.

Convection scheme

Readers of the chapter on the physical principles of peritoneal dialysis get back to their topic here.

The dialyzer:
In practice one usually finds Capillary dialyzers. A plastic tube contains 10,000 to 15,000 individual capillaries, which form the semipermeable membrane and through which the patient’s blood f

Kinds of Kidney Disease

Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the kidney corpuscles (glomeruli) located in the kidney cortex.
Approx. a third of all dialysis patients suffer from chronic glomerulonephritis.

Consequences of glomerulonephritis:
The basic task of the kidney takes place in the so-called kidney corpuscles (Lat .: glomeruli) with the adjoining urinary tubules (see: Structure and functions of the kidney). Here, to put it very simply (!), Everything is filtered out of the blood that does not belong in there, e.g. Metabolic products, poisons, leftover food, medicines, excess water, salts, etc. A kidney corpuscle, which humans have around 1.5 million, consists of a tangle of tiny blood vessels with numerous tiny pores. Smallest “particles” and water can pass through and leave the body with the urine. Larger substances, on the other hand, such as blood cells or etc. Proteins are retained. Think of this like a coffee filter: water, flavor and color get through the pores of the coffee filter, while the ground coffee does not fit through the pores.
When the kidney corpuscles become inflamed, these pores expand, so that proteins or possibly red blood cells can also pass into the urine (technical terms: protein excretion = proteinuria, blood cells in the urine = hematuria). Conversely, if protein appears in the urine, one can conclude that there is a disease of the kidney corpuscles (glomerulonephritis).
Over time, the affected kidney corpuscles will fail and perish.
The blood pressure rises (see also Increased blood pressure (hypertension).

Different forms of glomerulonephritis are known.
A distinction is made between an acute and a chronic form. While there is a chance of a cure in acute inflammation, chronic glomerulonephritis eventually leads to a state of dialysis.

Since the causes of glomerulonephritis are unknown (knowledge from a specialist book from 1996), there is still no causal treatment with guaranteed success. It is also not known why some progressive forms heal.

Interstitial nephritis:
Interstitial means in between and thus designates kidney inflammation that occurs in the tissue between glomeruli (kidney corpuscles) and tubules (tube systems connected to the glomeruli). (see: Structure and functions of the kidney).

A distinction is made between inflammation of bacterial and non-bacterial (abacterial) origin, as well as acute and chronic diseases.

2.1 acute interstitial nephritis
2.1.1 Acute drug-induced interstitial nephritis
This type of kidney inflammation can be both dose-dependent and dose-independent as a hypersensitivity reaction. As a rule, kidney function normalizes after stopping the triggering medication.

2.1.2 acute bacterial interstitial nephritis (also: pyelonephritis)
Usually the result of a urinary tract infection caused by bacteria. Both kidneys or only one side may be affected. The disease progresses in episodes with fever and pain in the back and urination, as well as nausea and vomiting.

2.2 chronic interstitial nephritis
2.2.1 Analgesic nephropathy (“phenacetin kidney”)

Occurs after years of taking large amounts of pain relievers such as phenacetin or paracetamol, as well as anti-inflammatory drugs.

2.2.2 chronic bacterial nephritis (also: pyelonephritis)
This disease is usually based on an underlying disease that leads to the colonization of the kidneys with bacteria or promotes them.

Vascular (vascular) nephropathies
Vascular nephropathy refers to kidney damage caused by a change in the blood flow in the kidneys.
This can affect both the large (one or both sides) and the small kidney vessels (both sides).

Tubular nephropathies
These kidney diseases are characterized by the failure of partial functions of the tubules (tube systems connected to the glomeruli; see: Structure and functions of the kidney).
Many of these diseases are hereditary. Usually do not lead to renal insufficiency.
Depending on the affected tubular section, different clinical pictures result.

Cystic kidneys
A cyst is a tissue cavity closed off by a capsule.
The so-called cyst kidney is a double-sided expansion of the tubules (tube systems adjoining the glomeruli; see: Structure and functions of the kidney) and collecting tubes with lifelong progressive cyst formation. This is connected with the destruction of normal kidney tissue. A single cyst can be between a few millimeters and 15 cm in size.

The cysts are filled with a clear yellow liquid; Bleeding into the cysts and infection