Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the kidney corpuscles (glomeruli) located in the kidney cortex.
Approx. a third of all dialysis patients suffer from chronic glomerulonephritis.
Consequences of glomerulonephritis:
The basic task of the kidney takes place in the so-called kidney corpuscles (Lat .: glomeruli) with the adjoining urinary tubules (see: Structure and functions of the kidney). Here, to put it very simply (!), Everything is filtered out of the blood that does not belong in there, e.g. Metabolic products, poisons, leftover food, medicines, excess water, salts, etc. A kidney corpuscle, which humans have around 1.5 million, consists of a tangle of tiny blood vessels with numerous tiny pores. Smallest “particles” and water can pass through and leave the body with the urine. Larger substances, on the other hand, such as blood cells or etc. Proteins are retained. Think of this like a coffee filter: water, flavor and color get through the pores of the coffee filter, while the ground coffee does not fit through the pores.
When the kidney corpuscles become inflamed, these pores expand, so that proteins or possibly red blood cells can also pass into the urine (technical terms: protein excretion = proteinuria, blood cells in the urine = hematuria). Conversely, if protein appears in the urine, one can conclude that there is a disease of the kidney corpuscles (glomerulonephritis).
Over time, the affected kidney corpuscles will fail and perish.
The blood pressure rises (see also Increased blood pressure (hypertension).
Different forms of glomerulonephritis are known.
A distinction is made between an acute and a chronic form. While there is a chance of a cure in acute inflammation, chronic glomerulonephritis eventually leads to a state of dialysis.
Since the causes of glomerulonephritis are unknown (knowledge from a specialist book from 1996), there is still no causal treatment with guaranteed success. It is also not known why some progressive forms heal.
Interstitial means in between and thus designates kidney inflammation that occurs in the tissue between glomeruli (kidney corpuscles) and tubules (tube systems connected to the glomeruli). (see: Structure and functions of the kidney).
A distinction is made between inflammation of bacterial and non-bacterial (abacterial) origin, as well as acute and chronic diseases.
2.1 acute interstitial nephritis
2.1.1 Acute drug-induced interstitial nephritis
This type of kidney inflammation can be both dose-dependent and dose-independent as a hypersensitivity reaction. As a rule, kidney function normalizes after stopping the triggering medication.
2.1.2 acute bacterial interstitial nephritis (also: pyelonephritis)
Usually the result of a urinary tract infection caused by bacteria. Both kidneys or only one side may be affected. The disease progresses in episodes with fever and pain in the back and urination, as well as nausea and vomiting.
2.2 chronic interstitial nephritis
2.2.1 Analgesic nephropathy (“phenacetin kidney”)
Occurs after years of taking large amounts of pain relievers such as phenacetin or paracetamol, as well as anti-inflammatory drugs.
2.2.2 chronic bacterial nephritis (also: pyelonephritis)
This disease is usually based on an underlying disease that leads to the colonization of the kidneys with bacteria or promotes them.
Vascular (vascular) nephropathies
Vascular nephropathy refers to kidney damage caused by a change in the blood flow in the kidneys.
This can affect both the large (one or both sides) and the small kidney vessels (both sides).
These kidney diseases are characterized by the failure of partial functions of the tubules (tube systems connected to the glomeruli; see: Structure and functions of the kidney).
Many of these diseases are hereditary. Usually do not lead to renal insufficiency.
Depending on the affected tubular section, different clinical pictures result.
A cyst is a tissue cavity closed off by a capsule.
The so-called cyst kidney is a double-sided expansion of the tubules (tube systems adjoining the glomeruli; see: Structure and functions of the kidney) and collecting tubes with lifelong progressive cyst formation. This is connected with the destruction of normal kidney tissue. A single cyst can be between a few millimeters and 15 cm in size.
The cysts are filled with a clear yellow liquid; Bleeding into the cysts and infection